What Is Sashimi or Sushi Grade Fish? The Detailed Guide.
For the preparation of sushi or sashimi, the quality and freshness of the raw fish or seafoods used is of particular importance. Learn everything you need to know about the safe consumption of raw fish and seafood in our guide.
3/20/2021 (updated: 5/5/2021)
In this article guide, we present carefully researched topics to help interpret more quickly and competently what the terms sushi or sashimi grade mean.
What Makes Sashimi or Sushi Grade Fish?
The terms sushi or sashimi grade describe fish or seafood suitable for raw consumption. While the term may seem quite authoritative, as it stands today it is neither defined nor standardized. It is more of a generally accepted marketing term used to help customers select certain ingredients or to promote the sale of certain fishery products.
There is no standard legal definition of sashimi grade. When you see marine fish labeled as such, it simply means the seller has determined that the fish is probably good for sushi, based on an assessment of bacteria levels, temperature, parasites, appearance, smell, taste, how it’s displayed, and time after being caught. For the consumer, it is a question of whether you can trust the seller. Nick Sakagami, Osakana-Master [Sakagami, 2019]
Consequently, many commercially available fish or seafood are suitable for the preparation of sushi or sashimi, provided they meet certain quality and safety criteria. With regard to these requirements, exact guidelines and standards exist in many countries. They regulate how fish or seafood must be handled if they are to be consumed raw. In particular, these regulations usually deal with the specifications for maintaining the necessary cold chain, hygiene and the killing of potential parasites that are potentially harmful to humans. Because the preparation of sushi or sashimi is only one of many possible raw dishes, the relevant regulations are therefore less concerned with qualitative (organoleptic) characteristics such as taste, appearance, odor and color than with food safety. Nevertheless, these very characteristics, along with freshness and safety, play a central role in the selection of ingredients for the preparation of sushi and sashimi.
The following paragraphs explain the basic requirements for the general definition of sushi or sashimi grade. Since sushi has long since become a global culinary phenomenon, consumers today usually encounter this term at fishmongers, supermarkets or various online stores. It should be mentioned that the term sushi or sashimi quality generally describes suitability in terms of food regulations and not "quality" in particular. The quality spectrum of suitable and "safe" ingredients therefore ranges from inexpensive mass-produced goods to high-priced top-quality products.
The terms sushi or sashimi quality merely indicate whether fish or seafood can be eaten raw according to legal requirements. They say nothing about the actual quality and taste.
The Importance of Freshness for Sushi and Sashimi
Fish or seafood should be as fresh as possible for the preparation of sushi or sashimi. Ingredients that need to aged for a certain time before they develop their best flavor should also have a high degree of freshness at the beginning of the aging process. In the context of food, the term "freshness" is used as a definition for the condition of an ingredient whose original characteristics are preserved as much as possible. Spoilage is thus an indicator of changes after catch or slaughter. Compared to other food, fish and seafood are highly perishable and therefore require special requirements in their handling and processing.
1. Prevention of Pathogens
Raw fish and seafood are among the most sensitive foods from a microbiological and hygienic point of view. The spoilage process is triggered by the action of enzymes, bacteria and chemical reactions. Therefore, the longer the time of death, the more advanced the growth of potential pathogens. Therefore, when using raw ingredients, a certain basic level of germ contamination should always be assumed. As expected, processing and preparation further increases this germ content. This underlines the importance of freshness and the quality of the initial product, because sushi or sashimi is usually consumed raw, without prior (germicidal/bactericidal) heating.
2. Ensuring Quality and Taste
The spoilage process is usually accompanied by a change in the physical characteristics of the raw material. These changes result in deterioration of food quality such as color, texture and taste. While both freezing and refrigeration extend the shelf life of food, objective food quality continues to deteriorate regardless of the preservation method [Dawson et al., 2018]. Therefore, fish and seafood, whether processed into sushi or sashimi or stored, should be as fresh as possible.
The use of the freshest possible raw material not only has a positive effect on the shelf life, but also ensures a high quality taste and quality.
Benefits of Flash Freezing Fish or Seafood
The definition of "fresh" or is often colloquially equated with the absence of a freezing treatment. However, freezing fish or seafood does not reduce its freshness, but rather serves to preserve it. However, it remains to be considered that while freezing does extend the shelf life of food, it equally inevitably leads to a degradation of food quality [Dawson et al., 2018]. The physicochemical and biochemical reactions that regulate food deterioration are slowed but not stopped when foods are frozen. During storage, the organoleptic quality gradually deteriorates but does not become objectionable for a long time [Sebranek, 1996]. The temperature at which frozen foods are stored, the length of time they are stored, and the thawing process all play a role in quality loss. Careful management of these processes, including preparation before freezing and thawing, it is possible to provide frozen fish or seafood with a high level of quality [Rahman & Velez-Ruiz, 2007].
1. Prevention of Parasitic Infections
Raw consumption of fresh, previously unfrozen fish or seafood carries a risk of being contaminated with viable parasites that may be harmful to humans [Nawa et al., 2005]. Fish or seafood caught in the wild are particularly problematic in their evaluation for potential parasite infection.
Candling or rapid visual inspection on a light table is a common practice in the fish processing industry to detect nematodes. The success rate depends on fillet thickness, size, texture, color, and fish species, and is largely dependent on the training and skills of the inspector. As a result, candling is insufficient to detect the majority of nematodes present in the meat [Llarena-Reino et al., 2012]. Epidemiological data from fishing areas can provide information on the risk of possible parasite infestation [Cipriani, 2018], but are not an absolute guarantee of the absence of parasites in wild fish [EFSA, 2010]. Particularly with regard to raw consumption, it is necessary to ensure that there are no viable parasites in the meat. According to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, to kill parasites, the following core temperatures and storage conditions must be met; otherwise, fish or seafood is not safe for raw consumption unless exempt conditions exist [FDA, 2020].
- Freezing at an ambient temperature of -4°F (-20°C) or below until solid. Storing at an ambient temperature of -4°F (-20°C) or below for 7 days; or
- Freezing at an ambient temperature of -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid. Storing at an ambient temperature of -31°F (-35°C) or below for 15 hours; or
- Freezing at an ambient temperature of -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid. Storing at an ambient temperature of -4°F (-20°C) or below for 24 hours.
Most household or domestic freezers are not capable of ensuring a continuous temperature of at least -4°F (-20°C) or below. In addition, the study by [Podolska et al., 2019] shows the importance of the speed of the freezing process and that longer storage times must be considered accordingly. Freezing in household or domestic freezers for the sole purpose of killing parasites should therefore be discouraged [Sanchez-Alonso et al., 2018].
2. Extending Shelf Life
Professionally and industrially frozen fish or seafood, in contrast to freshly caught seafood, have the advantage that they can be stored considerably longer without significant loss of quality. Freezing is one of the most effective forms of food preservation. Microbial growth that cause food spoilage and pathogens are deactivated below of -0.4°F (-18°C). By using industrial flash freezing, food quality degradation is minimized [Iwata et al., 2015]. Fish or seafood that have been preserved by flash freezing immediately after being caught are thus adequate and satisfactory ingredients for the preparation of sushi or sashimi.
All frozen foods are suitable for consumption, as long as they were edible at the time of freezing. Frozen foods have an almost indefinite shelf life in terms of food safety; any expiration date claims generally refer to organoleptic food quality ([FoodFacts, 2020], [Schafer & Driessen, 2018]). Because food quality plays a central role in the preparation of sushi and sashimi, ingredients should not be stored in domestic freezers for an extended period of time. Although the ingredients are still edible, the quality continuously deteriorates as enzymatic and non-enzymatic changes also occur during frozen storage, albeit at a much slower rate [Moharram & Rofael, 1993]. Sushi ingredients that have been previously been frozen should not be frozen again after thawing because pathogens reactivate and begin to grow throughout the thawing process. In terms of food safety, as well as aesthetics and taste, fish or seafood that has been thawed under refrigeration should be prepared and consumed in a timely manner.
3. Minimal Loss of Quality During Flash Freezing
Frozen food often has the reputation of being inferior to fresh. From an organoleptic point of view, fresh products that are adequately cooled and consumed in a timely manner have the advantage. Freezing, especially slow freezing, can negatively change the textural qualities of products. However, with flash freezing, these qualities are better preserved, and the differences from a fresh product are very slight to partially imperceptible. The extremely short freezing process during flash freezing ensures that the cell liquid forms only very small ice crystals, so that the cell structures remain intact. The degree of cellular damage is directly related to food quality in terms of taste, texture, nutritional value, and appearance [Goswami, 2001]. Modern processes allow fish and seafood to be preserved without significantly deteriorating their quality or nutritional value.
To ensure the highest possible safety and the lowest possible loss of quality, fish or seafood from wild stocks for preparation as sushi or sashimi, should always have been subjected to low-temperature flash freezing and proper storage.
Under What Conditions Can Freezing Be Dispensed With?
1. Farmed Fish and Seafood (Aquaculture)
If fish or seafood has been farmed (aquaculture), the freezing treatment required for raw consumption may be waived under certain conditions. In the case of the requirements for safe raw consumption, for example, the regulations of the European Commission go further than those of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which state that [EC 1276/2011]:
- Use of animals cultured exclusively from embryos.
- Those animals have been fed exclusively on a diet that cannot contain viable parasites that present a health hazard
- The rearing of the animals must take place in an environment that is epidemiologically proven to be free of parasites or the farm operator uses officially approved procedures to ensure that no viable parasites are present in the products and therefore do not pose a health hazard, this requirement may be waived.
Farmed fish and seafood raised in land-based tanks or closed recirculating systems are considered safe with respect to the presence of parasites that pose a health risk, provided the above conditions are met [EC 1276/2011].
2. Species- or Origin-specific Absence of Parasites
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration maintains a list of species whose risk of infestation with parasites harmful to humans is considered high, but further recommends an individual assessment of the situation with regard to raw consumption even for low-risk species [FDA, 2020].
Species of fish not listed with a parasite hazard [...] may have a parasite hazard that has not been identified if these fish are not customarily consumed raw [...], or if the hazard occurs in certain localized harvest areas that are not known commercial sources of fresh fish for the U.S. FDA, Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance, Chapter 5 [FDA, 2020]
According to the European Commission, parasite-killing freezing treatment of wild-caught fish or seafood may be not required if epidemiological data indicate that the fishing grounds of origin do not pose a health risk in terms of parasite occurrence, and the competent authority authorises [EC 1276/2011].
3. Farmed Atlantic Salmon
Farmed Atlantic salmon (lat. Salmo salar) raised in floating cages (marine aquaculture) has a low probability of parasite infection, according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Apart from Atlantic salmon, there are insufficient surveillance data for other farmed species. It is therefore not possible for EFSA to currently identify other fish species or seafood from marine aquaculture that do not pose a health risk in terms of the presence of parasites [EFSA, 2010].
Fish and seafood that have not been explicitly approved for raw consumption should not be used for the preparation of sushi or sashimi. As a rule, it can be assumed that products designated as sashimi or sushi quality have been industrially frozen by the producer for this purpose or originate from farming facilities or fishing grounds that have been assessed as safe by the authorities.
The Effect of a Marinade on Parasites
Not all fish species are used untreated for the preparation of sushi or sashimi. A common processing is curing fish in salt and marinating it in a vinegar solution (sujime). Sujime is commonly used to soften bones, enhance flavor and preserve meat. A popular sushi or sashimi ingredient made using this method is shime saba. Marinating may cause an antibacterial effect, but has little effect on potentially present parasites. Although some cooking literature may encourage killing parasites by pickling or marinating, studies show that traditional marinades are ineffective and thus are not an adequate alternative to freezing treatment [Sánchez-Monsalvez et al, 2005].
Pickling in a traditional salt and vinegar marinade (sujime) is practically ineffective in terms of killing parasites.
Basic information about quality
As we all know, taste is debatable, but quality is not. For an optimal taste experience when eating sushi or sashimi, the raw ingredients should therefore be of very high quality. Exceptions are fish that have already been dry aged for flavor enhancement. During this controlled aging process, their objective quality characteristics deteriorate, while the taste intensifies.
Whether you prefer fatty fish like salmon or lean fish like sea bass, the better the quality, the tastier the final dish. Therefore, from the consumer's point of view, it is important to be able to distinguish between high quality and lower quality raw ingredients. Likewise, origin and seasonality are important, especially for wild-caught species. Climatic influences and timing of spawning have significant effects on overall physiology, fat content, and thus have a direct impact on taste [Sarower et al., 2012], [Hwang et al., 2000]. Purchase price is not necessarily an indicator of quality or taste. Nevertheless, it is regularly shown that quality and taste are often associated with a higher price. Especially in the case of farmed fish, experience shows that fish from high quality farms, are superior to those from ordinary aquaculture. Especially when the fish are to be processed into sushi or sashimi, those products have the advantage whose breeders rely on low stocking density, careful handling and special slaughtering methods (e.g. ikejime).
No. Most of the wild fish available in the trade come predominantly from commercial or industrial fisheries. Possible fishing methods range from pole and line to kilometer-long trawls. Basically, any fishing method can be used to provide "sushi" or "sashimi-quality" fish. On the other hand, the fishing method may well be responsible for the difference between top and normal quality [Satomi, 2016]. The more sought-after a species is, the more likely it is that fishing methods will be differentiated in terms of quality, as in the case of tuna.
1. Whole Fish
After you have decided what kind of fish you would like to buy, you need to evaluate the quality of the fresh seafood you have chosen. Whole fish, regardless of the variety, have certain characteristics that indicate freshness.
|Quality parameters||Characteristic||Highest quality level|
|Blood spots on gill cover||None|
|Stiffness||Stiff and slightly flexible on pressure|
|Clarity||Clear and black, metallic glossy|
|Form||Normal, convex, stands out from the head|
|Color||Characteristic, red, clear mucus|
Unlike whole fish, it is much more difficult to tell how "fresh" fillets are because the number of indicators is significantly reduced. Fillets that have been filleted by hand, if processed properly, are preferable to those from automated and industrial processing. When removing the fish bones by machine, cracks or indentation may be added to the meat. The damage is not only unsightly, but also provides a potential breeding ground for bacteria. Condensation can collect in the cracks, which can promote the growth of bacteria. If filleted pieces are pale and dry or covered with some sort of slimy layer, refrain from using them. Pre-packaged fillets should not contain excessive liquid, which can be an indication of temperature abuse or excessive storage. In addition, the liquid promotes faster spoilage of the fillets.
|Quality parameters||Characteristic||Highest quality level|
|Surface||Free from damage, without hematoma or blood suffusions|
|Color||Uniform, without discoloration|
Since the taste of sushi or sashimi is one of the most important consumption motives, it is advisable to select ingredients with above-average quality. Even if the price should not be an indicator, ingredients from a specialized retailer are usually the better choice.
Summary and Conclusion
Fish or seafood used for the preparation of sushi or sashimi must be fresh and should comply with the aforementioned specifications. Both wild-caught marine and freshwater fish must be assumed to be infested with viable parasites that may be of concern to human health. Common methods of detecting possible infestation by parasites, in addition to purely diagnostic laboratory methods, include candeling and visual inspection during filleting. However, these conventional or visual inspection-based methods are error prone and cannot be applied to large species or unprocessed fish or seafood. It is therefore considered unlikely that wild-caught fish without proper anti-parasitic freeze treatment are fundamentally a safe raw ingredient for the preparation of sushi or sashimi. Although traditionalists prefer animals without prior freezing treatment, it is advisable in terms of food safety to subject all wild-caught fish and seafood to industrial flash freezing. High quality processed fish or seafood that has been flash frozen in a timely manner after being caught and properly thawed is comparable to those that have not been frozen. This method should only be dispensed with if it is undoubtedly ensured that the respective ingredient is free from viable humanpatogenic parasites. For those who value fish or seafood that is as fresh as possible and without freezing treatment, fish or seafood from approved aquaculture facilities may be an adequate and safe alternative.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
References & further reading
- [Aibinu et al., 2019]: Ibukun E. Aibinu, Peter M.Smooker, Andreas L.Lopata. Anisakis Nematodes in Fish and Shellfish- from infection to allergies. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife Vol. 9. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.04.007
- [Audicana et al., 2002]: Marı́a Teresa Audicana, Ignacio J. Ansotegui, Luis Fernández de Corres, Malcolm W. Kennedy. Anisakis simplex: dangerous — dead and alive?. Trends in Parasitology Vol. 18 (1). Cell Press, Cambridge. 2002. doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(01)02152-3
- [Bao et al., 2017]: Miguel Bao, Graham J. Pierce, Santiago Pascual, Miguel González-Muñoz, Simonetta Mattiucci, Ivona Mladineo, Paolo Cipriani, Ivana Bušelić, Norval J. C. Strachan. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis. Scientific Reports Vol. 7 (1). Nature Publishing Group, Berlin. doi:10.1038/srep43699
- [BSWPH, 2021]: Tokyo Food Safety Information Center » Good things to know » Food parasites » Anisakis – Nematode. Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health (東京都福祉保健局), Tokyo. Retrieved online on: March 2, 2021: https://www.fukushihoken.metro.tokyo.lg.jp/shokuhin/eng/musi/01.html
- [Cavaleiro et al., 2019]: Bárbara Cavaleiro, Margarida Hermida, Aurélia Saraiva. Seasonal differences in parasite infection of skipjack tuna in Madeira archipelago. IMMR'18, International Meeting on Marine Research 2018, frontiersin.org, Frontiers Media, Lausanne. 2019. Retrieved online on: March 4, 2021: https://www.frontiersin.org/10.3389/conf.FMARS.2018.06.00031/5391/IMMR_18_%7C_International_Meeting_on_Marine_Research_2018/all_events/event_abstract
- [Cipriani et al., 2018]: Paolo Cipriani, Gian Luca Sbaraglia, Marialetizia Palomba, Lucilla Giulietti, Bruno Bellisario, Ivana Bušelić, Ivona Mladineo, Roberto Cheleschi, Giuseppe Nascetti, Simonetta Mattiucci. Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus from the Mediterranean Sea: Fishing ground as a predictor of parasite distribution. Fisheries Research Vol. 202. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2017.03.020
- [Dawson et al., 2018]: Paul Dawson, Wesam Al-Jeddawi, Nanne Remington. Effect of Freezing on the Shelf Life of Salmon. International Journal of Food Science Vol. 2018 (340). Hindawi, London. 2018
- [EC 1276/2011]: European Commission. COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1276/2011 of 8 December 2011 amending Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the treatment to kill viable parasites in fishery products for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Union Vol. 54 (L 327). European Union, Brussels. 2011
- [EFSA, 2010]: EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ). Scientific Opinion on risk assessment of parasites in fishery products. EFSA Journal Vol. 8 (4). European Food Safety Authority, Parma, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. 2010
- [EP, 2004]: The European Parliament And The Council Of The European Union. Regulation (ec) No 853/2004 Of The European Parliament And Of The Council of 29 April 2004, Laying down specific hygiene rules for on the hygiene of foodstuffs, The European Parliament And The Council Of The European Union. The Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 2004. Retrieved online on: December 26, 2020
- [Eslami et al., 2011]: A. Eslami, H. Sabokroo, S. H. Ranjbar-Bahadori. Infection of Anisakids Larvae in Long Tail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol) In North Persian Gulf. Iranian Journal of Parasitology Vol. 6 (3). Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Teheran. 2011
- [FDA, 2020]: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance. 2020
- [Fiorenza et al., 2020]: Evan A. Fiorenza, Catrin A. Wendt, Katie A. Dobkowski, Teri L. King, Marguerite Pappaionou, Peter Rabinowitz, Jameal F. Samhouri, Chelsea L. Wood. It’s a wormy world: Meta‐analysis reveals several decades of change in the global abundance of the parasitic nematodes Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. in marine fishes and invertebrates. Global Change Biology Vol. 26 (5). Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken. 2020. doi:10.1111/gcb.15048
- [FoodFacts, 2020]: Food Facts: Fresh and Frozen Seafood Selecting and Serving It Safely. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring. 2015. Retrieved online on: March 9, 2021: https://www.fda.gov/media/79895/download
- [George, 1993]: R.M. George. Freezing proceseses used in the food industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology Vol. 4 (5). Elsevier, Amsterdam. 1993. doi:10.1016/0924-2244(93)90032-6
- [Goswami, 2001]: Tridib Kumar Goswami. 4th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, December 26-28, 2001, Dhaka, Bangladesh/pp. III: Cryogenic Fish Freezing: Science, Technology & Economics. 2001
- [Huidobro et al., 2000]: A. Huidobro, A. Pastor, M. Tejada. Quality Index Method Developed for Raw Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata). Journal of Food Science Vol. 65 (7). Wiley. 2000. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb10265.x
- [Humaid & Jamal, 2014]: Sami A. Humaid, Mamdoh T. Jamal. The Effect of Storage Temperature (4°C, 15°C and 25°C) on The Shelf Life of Whole Marine Fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology Vol. 8 (11). International Organization Of Scientific Research (IOSR), Gurugram. 2014. doi:10.9790/2402-081114651
- [Huss, 1995]: Hans Henrik Huss. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper - 348, Quality and quality changes in fresh fish. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 1995
- [Hwang et al., 2000]: Deng‐Fwu Hwang, Tai‐Yuan Chen, Chyuan‐Yuan Shiau, Sen‐Shyong Jeng. Seasonal variations of free amino acids and nucleotide‐related compounds in the muscle of cultured Taiwanese puffer Takifugu rubripes. Fisheries Science Vol. 66 (6). 2008. doi:10.1046/j.1444-2906.2000.00178.x
- [Iwata et al., 2015]: Kentaro Iwata, Takahiko Fukuchi, Kenichi Yoshimura. Is the Quality of Sushi Ruined by Freezing Raw Fish and Squid? A Randomized Double-Blind Trial With Sensory Evaluation Using Discrimination Testing. Clinical Infectious Diseases Vol. 60 (9). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2015. doi:10.1093/cid/civ057
- [Jonsdottir, 1992]: S. Jonsdottir. Quality index method and TQM system. In: Quality Issues in the Fish Industry (eds. Olafsson, Ingthorsson). The Research Liaison Office, University of Iceland. 1992
- [Karl, 1988]: Horst Karl. Comparison of detection methods for nematode larvae (Vergleich von Nachweismethoden für Nematodenlarven). Federal Research Institute for Fisheries, Hamburg (Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei, Hamburg). 1988
- [Lakshmanan et al., 1996]: P.T. Lakshmanan, P.D. Antony, K. Gopakumar. Nucleotide degradation and quality changes in mullet (Liza corsula) and pearlspot (Etroplus suratensis) in ice and at ambient temperatures. Food Control Vol. 7 (6). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. 1996
- [Leonard, 2011]: Barry Leonard. Fish and Fishery Products: Hazards and Controls Guidance.. DIANE Publishing. 2011
- [Levsen et al., 2005]: Arne Levsen, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Björn Berland. Low Detection Efficiency of Candling as a Commonly Recommended Inspection Method for Nematode Larvae in the Flesh of Pelagic Fish. Journal of Food Protection Vol. 68 (4). Allen Press, Lawrence. 2005. doi:10.4315/0362-028X-68.4.828
- [Lima dos Santos, 1981]: Carlos Alberto M. Lima dos Santos. The storage of tropical fish in ice - A review. Tropical Science Vol. 23 (2). Wiley. 1977
- [Llarena-Reino et al., 2012]: María Llarena-Reino, Ángel F. González, Carlos Vello , Luis Outeiriño, Santiago Pascual. The accuracy of visual inspection for preventing risk of Anisakis spp. infection in unprocessed fish. Food Control Vol. 23 (1). Elsevier, Amsterdam. 2012
- [McKerrow et al., 1988]: McKerrow J. H., Sakanari J., Deardorff T. L.. Anisakiasis: Revenge of the Sushi Parasite. The New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 319 (8). Massachusetts Medical Society, Waltham. 1988. doi:10.1056/nejm198811033191819
- [MHLW Satō, 2019]: Satō Nobuhiko (佐藤 暢彦). Food poisoning statistical data: The occurrence of food poisoning 2019 [Excel format: 168KB] (食中毒統計資料: 令和元年（2019年）食中毒発生状況 [Excel形式：168KB]). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Tokyo (厚生労働省, 東京都). Retrieved online on: March 4, 2021: https://www.mhlw.go.jp/content/R1jokyo.xls
- [Mierke-Klemeyer et al., 2003]: Sabine Mierke-Klemeyer, Reinhard Schubring, Jörg Oehlenschläger. Changes in sensory and instrumental parameters during freeze storage of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) at different temperatures (Veränderungen sensorischer und instrumenteller Parameter während der Gefrierlagerung von Ostseedorsch (Gadus morhua) bei unterschiedlichen Temperaturen). Informationen für die Fischwirtschaft aus der Fischereiforschung Vol. 50 (4). Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei, Hamburg. 2003
- [Mladineo et al., 2011]: I.Mladineo, T.Šegvić, M.Petrić. Do captive conditions favor shedding of parasites in the reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)?. Parasitology International Vol. 60 (1). Elsevier, Amsterdam. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2010.09.007
- [Moharram & Rofael, 1993]: Y. G. Moharram, S. D. Rofael. Shelf life studies of foods and beverages : chemical, biological, physical and nutritional aspects (G. Charalambous, ed.), Chapter: Shelf life of frozen vegetables. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam
- [Nawa et al., 2005]: Yukifumi Nawa, Christoph Hatz, Johannes Blum. Sushi Delights and Parasites: The Risk of Fishborne and Foodborne Parasitic Zoonoses in Asia. Clinical Infectious Diseases Vol. 41 (9). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2005. doi:10.1086/496920
- [Podolska et al., 2019]: Magdalena Podolska, Bogusław Pawlikowski, Katarzyna Nadolna-Ałtyn, Joanna Pawlak, Katarzyna Komar-Szymczak, Beata Szostakowska. How effective is freezing at killing Anisakis simplex, Pseudoterranova krabbei, and P. decipiens larvae? An experimental evaluation of time-temperature conditions. Parasitology Research Vol. 118 (7). Springer, Heidelberg. 2019
- [Polimeno et al., 2021]: Lorenzo Polimeno, Maria Teresa Lisanti, Margherita Rossini, Edoardo Giacovazzo, Lucrezia Polimeno, Lucantonio Debellis, Andrea Ballini, Skender Topi, Luigi Santacroce. Anisakis Allergy: Is Aquacultured Fish a Safe and Alternative Food to Wild-Capture Fisheries for Anisakis simplex- Sensitized Patients?. Biology Vol. 10 (2). MDPI, Basel. 2026
- [Rahman & Velez-Ruiz, 2007]: Mohammad Shafiur Rahman, Jorge F. Velez-Ruiz. Handbook of Food Preservation (ed. Rahman), Chapter 26: Food Preservation by Freezing. CRC-Press, Boca Raton. 2007
- [Sakagami, 2019]: Nick Sakagami. Sushi Master: An expert guide to sourcing, making and enjoying sushi at home. Quarry Books, Beverly. 2019
- [Sanchez-Alonso et al., 2018]: Isabel Sánchez-Alonso, Noelia Carballeda-Sangiao, Miguel González-Muñoz, Alfonso Navas, Susana C. Arcos, Angel Mendizábal, Melina Tejada, Mercedes Careche. Pathogenic potential of Anisakis L3 after freezing in domestic freezers. Food Control Vol. 84. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.07.010
- [Sánchez-Monsalvez et al., 2005]: I. Sánchez-Monsalvez, C. de Armas-Serra, J. Martínez, M. Dorado, A. Sánchez, F. Rodríguez-Caabeiro. A New Procedure for Marinating Fresh Anchovies and Ensuring the Rapid Destruction of Anisakis Larvae. Journal of Food Protection Vol. 68 (5). International Association for Food Protection. 2005
- [Sarower et al., 2012]: Sarower Mohammed Golam, Hasanuzzaman Abul Farah Md., Biswas Bhabananda, Abe Hiroki. Taste producing components in fish and fisheries products: A review. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology Vol. 2 (2). 2012
- [Satomi, 2016]: Shinzo Satomi. Sukiyabashi Jiro. Vertical Inc., New York. 2016
- [Schafer & Driessen, 2018]: William Schafer, Suzanne Driessen. The science of freezing foods. University of Minnesota Extension, Minneapolis. 2018. Retrieved online on: March 2, 2021: https://extension.umn.edu/preserving-and-preparing/science-freezing-foods
- [Sebranek, 1996]: Joseph G. Sebranek, Lester E. Jeremiah. Freezing Effects on Food Quality, Chapter 3: Poultry and Poultry Products. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1996
- [TMIHS, 2008]: Anisakis Parasitism in Bigeye Tuna as a Cause of Food Poisoning (Vol. 29, No. 10), 食中毒の原因食品となったメジマグロにおけるアニサキスの寄生状況 (第29巻、10号). Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (東京都感染症情報センター, 東京). 2008. Retrieved online on: March 2, 2021: http://idsc.tokyo-eiken.go.jp/epid/y2008/tbkj2910/
- [USDA, 2013]: Food Safety and Inspection Service. Freezing and Food Safety. United States Department of Agriculture. 2013. Retrieved online on: March 2, 2021: https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/freezing-and-food-safety/
- [Vardić Smrzlić et al., 2012]: I. Vardić Smrzlić, D. Valić, D. Kapetanović, B. Kurtović & E. Teskeredžić. Molecular characterisation of Anisakidae larvae from fish in Adriatic Sea. Parasitology Research Vol. 111. Springer, Berlin. 2012. doi:10.1007/s00436-012-3094-4
- [WHO, 1995]: WHO Study Group on the Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections (1993 : Manila, Philippines) & World Health Organization. (1995). Control of foodborne trematode infections : report of a WHO study group. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1995
- [Yasunaga et al., 2010]: Hideo Yasunaga, Hiromasa Horiguchi, Kazuaki Kuwabara, Hideki Hashimoto, Shinya Matsuda. Clinical Features of Bowel Anisakiasis in Japan. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Vol. 83 (1). American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Illinois. 2010. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0780
- [Žilić & Mladineo, 2006]: Jelena Žilić, Ivona Mladineo. Prevalence of the parasite Anisakis simplex (Anisakidae, Nematoda) in the blue fin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from mariculture. MESO: The first Croatian Meat Journal Vol. 8 (4). Zadružna štampa, Zagreb. 2006