December 27, 2020
January 12, 2022

Awabi Sushi



Photography of Awabi Sushi

What is Awabi (Abalone)?

Abalone are called awabi> in Japan, they are a genus of large marine snails, which resemble an auricle in their shape. They are considered a sought-after delicacy, especially in Asia, and are especially in demand in Japan as an ingredient for the preparation of sashimi and sushi. High-quality specimens are counted among the most expensive sushi ingredients.

Awabi as Ingredient for Sushi or Sashimi

There are two abalone (Japanese Awabi). One of them shows the bottom side, the other one the top side. They have the ideal size for the preparation of sushi or sashimi.
The strong, oval foot of the abalone, with which they cling to rocks near the coast, can be clearly seen. Tasty sushi or sashimi can be made from this muscle meat.

In Japan, the muscle meat of the awabi is highly valued for the preparation of various dishes. When preparing Sushi or as Sashimi, the freshness of the awabi plays a central role. For this reason they are usually killed shortly before preparation. Eaten is unfortunately the muscle foot, which is cut into slices. The consistency is crispy and firm, but not tough.

In addition to the raw, freshly prepared iki awabi (活きアワビ), the cooked variant mushi awabi (蒸しアワビ) is also highly appreciated as nimonodane sushi. The Awabi is salted before cooking and then heated in a mixture of sake and water, for example. Of very large awabi, such as the madaka-awabi, the cooked liver is considered a special delicacy. Moreover, it is said in Japan that the taste of the male Awabi, is superior to those of the female specimens.

Awabi in Japan

Besides the preparation as sushi or sashimi, there are different dishes in which awabi are steamed, salted, boiled, chopped or cooked in soy sauce. In some regions of Japan, awabiliver is considered a special delicacy. Probably one of the most unusual methods of preparation is a soup made from salted abalone, mixed with yams (awabi no tororo-jiru, 鮑のとろろ汁).

In Japan, it is customary to give awabi as a gift to someone to whom one wishes a long life. The custom is derived from the fact that awabi meat is very elastic and this metaphor should be applied to the to the life of the receiver of this gift. [Volker 1975]

In the old Japanese folk belief (shintō) awabi serves as a symbol of female fertility. Because the appearance of the awabi resembles female genitalia and labia, it is used by the Japanese as a circumlocution of the vulva ([Krauss, 1909], [Kassachau & Eguchi, 2015]).

Closely related to abalone is the Japanese tradition of ama (海人), the Japanese term for apnea mussel divers. These are usually women who also dive for the highly coveted abalone, among other seafood.

Abalone prepared in trays at a Japanese fish market.
Live abalone (katsu awabi, 活アワビ) at a Japanese fish market.

Characteristics & Ecology of Awabi (Abalone)

Abalones reach a size of up to 20 cm. The shape differs according to the species. Abalones prefer rocky reefs in a depth of about 20 m. The predominant diet consists of brown algae. It is almost impossible to distinguish female and male Abalones from the outside. On the basis of the gonads, however, a distinction can be made. The sex can be distinguished by opening the abalone and comparing the color of the gonads. The gonads of male abalone are whitish and those of females are green.

Kuro Awabi

Among connoisseurs, kuro awabi, literally translated “black sea-ear“, is considered the tastiest awabi-species and is accordingly expensive. It is also said that kuro awabi is best suited for sashimi because its firm flesh smells pleasant and has a full flavor. The best season is considered to be late spring to summer.

Kuro awabi is also called o-gai, which is understood as male awabi or mussel.

Ezo Awabi

The taste of ezo awabi is similar to that of kuro awabi and is also traded as a high-quality ingredient. Since it is a subspecies of kuro awabi, the flavor, texture and aroma are not significantly different. Wild specimens are most palatable in winter, while products from aquaculture are available and tasty all year round.

Megai Awabi

Megai-awabi ( メガイアワビ) belongs to the larger species and is preferably used for the preparation of cooked dishes. The meat is noticeably tenderer and less crispy, but for preparation as sushi or sashimi, the taste is inferior to that of kuro- and ezo-awabi. The most delicious are megai-awabi during the summer time.

Megai-awabi is also called “female clam” (mengai, メンガイ, 雌貝) in Japanese.


Since the second half of the 19th century, overfishing has led to a sharp decline in stocks. Particularly in Asia, as well as along the west coast of the United Staates and in Australia, some species are commercially bred in aquacultures. The shells of the abalones are valued as decorative objects and as a source of nacre (mother-of-pearl) for jewelry and inlays, among other things.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO FishstatJ, 2020], the largest share of the world market in 2018 comes mainly from China (83%), followed by South Korea (10%) and Australia (2%).

Diagram showing the progress of the global catch of abalone.
Since the 2000s, the proportion of abalone originating from aquaculture has been predominant.
Awabi Nigiri Sushi that is on a plate. 
				Dennis Schilder. 
				Iki Awabi Sushi (活あわび). 
				Copyright ©.
Abalone with Shiso and Pum Sauce as Nigiri Sushi on a plate. 
				Live Abalone with Shiso and Pum Sauce. 
				Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0).

Further information on the author can be found in the section on image credits.

Video about Awabi

External video embedded from SUSI TOMOKI. Master's Genuine Nigiri-Zushi Series 6 Preparation of Abalone for Sushi Ingredient

Species of Awabi

The following species are regarded as authentic. Either historically, according to the area of distribution or according to the common practice in today's gastronomy:

Japanese Name
Common Names, Scientific Name
Hokkaidō abalone
Haliotis discus hannai
family: Haliotidae
Tokobushi abalone, variously coloured abalone
Haliotis diversicolor
family: Haliotidae
disk abalone
Haliotis discus discus
family: Haliotidae
madaka abalone
Haliotis madaka
family: Haliotidae
giant abalone
Haliotis gigantea
family: Haliotidae

The following species can be considered subsitutes. Either on the basis of genetic relationship or because they are similar in taste or appearance:

Japanese Name
Common Names, Scientific Name

South African abalone
Haliotis midae
family: Haliotidae

black abalone
Haliotis cracherodii
family: Haliotidae

white abalone
Haliotis sorenseni
family: Haliotidae

pink abalone
Haliotis corrugata
family: Haliotidae

green abalone
Haliotis fulgens
family: Haliotidae
aka-awabi, Osutoraria-awabi
blacklip abalone
Haliotis rubra
family: Haliotidae
Red abalone
Haliotis rufescens
family: Haliotidae
Green ormer
Haliotis tuberculata
family: Haliotidae
greenlip abalone
Haliotis laevigata
family: Haliotidae

References & Further Reading

  • [FishStatJ, 2021]: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics. Global production by production source 1950-2019 (FishstatJ). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. 2021. Retrieved online on May 12, 2021.
  • [Kasschau & Eguchi, 2015]: Anne Kasschau, Susumu Eguchi. Using Japanese Slang: This Japanese Phrasebook, Dictionary and Language Guide Gives You Everything You Need To Speak Like a Native!. Tuttle Publishing, Boston. 2015.
  • [Kishi, 1986]: Asako Kishi. Sushi: A Light and Right Diet. Japan Publications, Tokyo. 1986.
  • [Koizumi, 1994]: 小泉 武夫. 奇食珍食 (engl. Strange Food and Rare Food). Chūōkōron Shinsha, Tokyo (中央公論新社, 東京都). 1994.
  • [Krauss, 1909]: Friedrich S. Krauss. Anthropophyteia. Deutsche Verlagaktiengesellschaft, Leipzig. 1909.
  • [Nakahara, 2019]: 中原 一歩. 「㐂寿司」のマダカは幻の鮑。 (engl. Madaka of "Kizushi" is a phantom abalone.). Dancyu, President Co., Ltd.. 2019. Retrieved online on March 20, 2021.
  • [Trenor, 2009]: Casson Trenor. Sustainable Sushi: A Guide to Saving the Oceans One Bite at a Time. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley. 2009.
  • [Volker, 1975]: T. Volker. The Animal in Far Eastern Art: And Especially in the Art of the Japanese Netzsuke, with References to Chinese Origins, Traditions, Legends, and Art. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden. 1975.

Image Credits

  1. Dennis Schilder. Iki Awabi Sushi (活あわび). License: Copyright ©.

  2. TheDeliciousLife. Live Abalone with Shiso and Pum Sauce. License: Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0). Changes made: image quality, brightness, contrast, colour matching, sharpening, cropping.


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